Latin name: Canis adustus (striped jackal), Canis aureus (golden jackal), Canis mesomelas (black-backed jackal)
size: 70 - 120cm
mass: 5 - 10kg
Older: 6 - 12 years
Appearance: Coat color is species dependent
Sexual dimorphism: Yes
Nutrition type: Omnivore (omnivor)
food: Carrion, fruits, small rodents, birds
distribution: Asia, Africa, Europe
original origin: Africa
Sleep-wake rhythm: nocturnal
habitat: depending on the species
natural enemies: Lynx, leopard, birds of prey
sexual maturity: in the second year of life
mating season: September October
gestation: 60 - 70 days
litter size: 1 - 5 cubs
social behavior: Family Association / Loner
Threatened with extinction: No
Further profiles of animals can be found in the Encyclopaedia.
Interesting facts about the jackal
- Jackals describe a four-species group of wolf-like wild dogs that inhabit large parts of Asia, Africa and Southeastern Europe.
- The golden jackal or Canis aureus is the only species native to Europe. In addition, the Black-backed Jackal, the Striped Jackal and the Abyssinian Jackal or Ethiopian Wolf belong to this group of dogs.
- The golden jackal occurs in Greece, Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey, as well as in Dalmatia, Asia Minor and India as well as in northeast Africa. In recent decades, the golden jackal has gradually penetrated into areas where it was previously not domiciled. Thus, few animals are found today in parts of Hungary, in northern Italy and even in Switzerland and in the east of Austria.
- Jackals prefers open grasslands and steppes, as well as sparsely vegetated savannas and rocky areas. They generally avoid dense forests and are often spotted near human settlements.
- Depending on the species, jackals differed slightly in size and coat color.
- The black-backed jackal attracts attention with its coat, which, in contrast to the rest of the coat, is much darker on the back, to which it owes its name.
- The striped jackal is a stocky body and has a gray fur dress with wide dark stripes and a bright tail tip.
- The golden jackal owes its name to its golden yellow coat color, whereby the coloration shows strong regional differences. Gold jackals living in mountainous regions are more gray in color, while the African specimens change their coat color from a yellowish brown to an intense golden yellow with the seasons.
- The golden jackal reaches a shoulder height of about half a meter, a total length of up to 120 centimeters and a maximum weight of ten kilograms.
- Jackals are extremely sociable and social animals that live together in close family associations or in couples.
- They are localized and remain exclusively in their territory, which is marked with traces of urine and can extend depending on the region over an area of up to two square kilometers. Jackals travel long distances on their raids.
- Disputes over territorial claims rarely end in battles, because usually threatening gestures are sufficient to drive out intruders.
- Conspecifics communicate with each other with a rich repertoire of bell and hulls.
- Jackals are predatory omnivores that capture small mammals, birds, rodents and reptiles, as well as livestock from time to time, as well as carrion, fruits, berries and plants.
- Males and females live together in a solid marriage and mate after the dry season in autumn.
- After a gestation period of about sixty days, the female gives birth in a sheltered cave several, in the first days blind puppies. These are exclusively nursed by the mother for several weeks and then additionally supplied with pre-digested meat food. At the age of six months they are independent.
- The life expectancy of wild jackals is about six years, and animals living in human custody can live up to fourteen years.